It is important to immediately check the nearby area for danger to yourself and the injured person. If it is safe, respond to the needs of the injured. Look at the Airway, Breathing and Circulation (ABC) of the patient.
Shout "Are you okay?", and mildly shake the patient. If there is no response :
- CALL FOR HELP
- ROLL THEM on to their side, clear and maintain an open airway
- CHECK BREATHING, if there is none begin resuscitation (CPR) immediately
- CHECK FOR BLEEDING and control it
- MAKE COMFORTABLE by loosening any tight clothing around waist or neck
- TREAT any other injuries and monitor condition
- SEEK MEDICAL HELP
DO NOT ! :
- Give ANY water, drinks or anything by mouth
- Leave them unattended
A person requires blood to be continuously circulating in their body. Any major loss of blood can cause death. It is very important to stop bleeding quickly. Try to prevent any excahnge of blood between the injured and the recuer by using gloves, a face mask and goggles.
If a person is bleeding :
- APPLY DIRECT PRESSURE to the wound preferably using a sterile dressing or clothing and place it against the wound. Bandage firmly in place. This will help the blood to clot. Make sure circulation is not restricted to limbs.
- ELEVATE THE INJURED PART, while keeping pressure on it. This slows down blood flow to the raised area.
- CONTINUED BLEEDING requires further dressing and pressure to be applied. Place additional dressings over those already there.
- SEEK MEDICAL HELP URGENTLY
DO NOT ! :
- Remove any dressings from the wound
- Remove or apply pressure to any objects EMBEDDED in the wound, apply pressure around the object
BURNS & SCALDS
Burns & scalds are caused by contact or proximity to heat sources such as : fire, steam, chemicals, hot metal and electricity.
Emergency treatment of burns should be primarily concerned with the relief of the pain that immediately follow burns, exclusion of air from the affected area, minimizing the onset of shock, and the prevention of infection.
If a person suffers a burn :
- REMOVE CLOTHING from the affected area but cut around any clothing that sticks to the skin and leave it in place
- COOL THE BURN under cold running water for 10 minutes
- COVER THE BURN with a sterile non-adherent (non stick) dressing or a clean piece of sheeting. Burns & scalds are subject to swelling so the covering should be loose with no pressure on the injured area.
- SEEK MEDICAL HELP
DO NOT ! :
- Break any blisters
- Apply ointment or other substances
Poisoning may occur by swallowing, by inhaling, or by skin contact with a hazardous substance.
Do not make the person vomit. If there is involuntary vomitting, keep the vomited material and hand it over to the doctor.
If unconscious follow the procedure for UNCONSCIOUSNESS above. If conscious try to find out what substance has caused the poisoning and find any safety data sheets on it and folows the instructions given. Seek medical advice urgently.
IN ALL CASES SEEK MEDICAL ADVISE
Injuries to the spine can lead to temporary or permanent loss of movement in the legs or arms. The person should be immobilized. Extreme care should be taken to support the head and neck if it is absolutely necessary to move the person.
If the person is unconscious follow the procedure for UNCONSCIOUSNESS above, taking extra care in supporting the neck and head when rolling them onto their side.
SEEK MEDICAL ASSISTANCE URGENTLY
Lay person on the floor and raise legs slightly onto a chair or other raised object. Allow a supply of fresh air to reach person. Make comfortable by loosening any tight fitting clothing. If the person does not recover, use UNCONSCIOUSNESS procedure and seek medical assistance.
If there is a foreign object in the eye do not attempt to remove it if it is embedded or, in the black or coloured part of the eyeball. Otherwise attempt to rinse the object out of the eye with cool water. If this fails and the object can be seen, use a clean, moistened handkerchief or cotton tip and carefully remove the object. Should the object remain in the eye, cover with an eye pad and seek medical attention.
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* Information obtained from Global Doctors